Compare and contrast Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs with Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory.

Among various behavioral theories long generally believed and embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs. These theories are widely cited in the business literature. In this paper the author is going to compare and contrast Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs with Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory.

Definition of Terms
According to the Wikipedia the Herzberg’s  motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction on the other hand Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people. He believed that people possess a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards or unconscious desires.
Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fullfil the next one, and so on.

According to Ummamina (2010)The similarities are as follows: Both theories confer that a specific set of needs must be met in order to propiciate behavior, and maintain it. In Manslow's theory, it is through a Hierarchy of Needs.  In Herzberg's theory it is through a 2 way paradigm in which two specific needs must be met and they are hygiene (basic physical and psychological needs) and motivation.
The main difference is that Manslow is more specific in terms of categorizing the areas of human need and includes less concrete areas such as emotions and other feelings. Herzberg is more specific in what psysiological and concrete things must be present to produce motivation. Also, Herzberg's ultimate goal is for motivation to be the prevailing attitude among individuals (quite clearly a need for a good quality of life), while Manslow's main goal is for needs to be met in order for an individual to develop in a healthy mental and physical way.
According to Akranni (2011) Maslow’s theory is based on the concept of human needs and their satisfaction while Hertzberg’s theory is based on the use of motivators which include achievement, recognition and opportunity for growth. On the basis of theory Maslow’s theory is based on the hierarchy of human needs. He identified five sets of human needs ( on priority basis) and their satisfaction in motivating employees while Hertzberg refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory. Hygiene factors are dissatisfies while motivating factors motivate subordinates. Hierarchical arrangement of needs is not given.
On the nature of theory, Maslow’s theory is rather simple and descriptive. The theory is based on long experience about human needs. Herzberg’s theory is more prescriptive. It suggests the motivating factors which can be effectively. This theory is based on actual information collected by Hertzberg by interviewing 200 engineers and accountants.
On applicability of the theory, Maslow’s theory is most popular and widely cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factors. Herzberg’s theory is an extension of Maslow’s theory of motivation.Its applicability is narrow. It is applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor.
Maslow’s theory or model is descriptive in nature while Herzberg’s theory or model is prescriptive in nature. According to Maslow’s model, any need can act as motivator provided it is not satisfied or relatively less satisfied. In the dual factor model of Herzberg, hygiene factors do not act as motivators.Only the higher order needs act as motivators.
On applicability of the theory, Maslow’s theory is most popular and widely 
However, there similarities which are as follows:Both use a hierarchical scale..where one stage must first be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage,both are based on the argument that "we behave as we do because we are attempting to fulfill internal needs." (Bartol et al., 2005) i.e. needs theory.They both specify the criteria as to what motivates people. However, this is controversial because entrepenuers and people from different cultures have different values and norms, and therefore have different criteria or have criteria which are percieved as more important e.g. Greek and Japanese employees stated that safety and physiological needs are more important to them, where as employees from Norway and Sweden saw belongingness needs as being more important.
Herzberg's hygiene idea corresponds with Manslow's Physiological, Safety and Belongingness needs i.e. they both have the same critieria (basic pay, work conditions etc...) Also, Herzberg's motivators idea corresponds with Manslow's Esteem and Self-Actualisation needs i.e. they both have the same criteria (recognition, growth, achievement etc...).Both theories are influenced by environmental conditions, employee attitudes and as a result, their motivation. These influence an employees performance.
Although Herzberg's paradigm of hygiene and motivating factors and Maslow's hierarchy of needs may still have broad applicability in the business world, at least one aspect of each, salary as a hygiene factor (Herzberg) and esteem as a lower order need than self-actualization (Maslow), does not seem to hold in the case of elementary and secondary school teachers. These findings may begin to explain why good teachers are being lost to other, higher paying positions and to help administrators focus more closely on the esteem needs of teachers, individually and collectively.

Akrani G._Campare Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation-Difference.Found online
Charlesdan-,A critical Review and Comparison Between Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland’s Theory of Needs. Found online on
Michelle O &Umnamira,-What are the Similarities and Differences Between the Theories of Maslow and Herzberg? Found on
Bellott, F. K., & Tutor, F. D. (1990). "A Challenge to the Conventional Wisdom of Herzberg and Maslow Theories." Paper presented at the Nineteenth Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The Motivation to Work (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and Personality (2nd ed.). New York: Harper and Row.
Tutor, F. D. (1986). The Relationship between Perceived Need Deficiencies and Factors Influencing Teacher Participation in the Tennessee Career Ladder. Doctoral dissertation, Memphis State University, Memphis, TN.

Etiwel Mutero works for the National University of Science and Technology,he holds a Bachelor of Science Honours Degree in Records and Archives Management through the Zimbabwe Open University and a National Certificate in Records and Archives Management from Kwekwe Polytechnic.You can contact him on 00264817871070 or

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